Built-in template tags and filters

This document describes Django’s built-in template tags and filters. It is recommended that you use the automatic documentation, if available, as this will also include documentation for any custom tags or filters installed.

Built-in tag reference


Controls the current auto-escaping behavior. This tag takes either on or off as an argument and that determines whether auto-escaping is in effect inside the block. The block is closed with an endautoescape ending tag.

When auto-escaping is in effect, all variable content has HTML escaping applied to it before placing the result into the output (but after any filters have been applied). This is equivalent to manually applying the escape filter to each variable.

The only exceptions are variables that are already marked as “safe” from escaping, either by the code that populated the variable, or because it has had the safe or escape filters applied.

Sample usage:

{% autoescape on %}
    {{ body }}
{% endautoescape %}


Defines a block that can be overridden by child templates. See Template inheritance for more information.


Ignores everything between {% comment %} and {% endcomment %}.


This tag is used for CSRF protection, as described in the documentation for Cross Site Request Forgeries.


Cycles among the given strings or variables each time this tag is encountered.

Within a loop, cycles among the given strings each time through the loop:

{% for o in some_list %}
    <tr class="{% cycle 'row1' 'row2' %}">
{% endfor %}

You can use variables, too. For example, if you have two template variables, rowvalue1 and rowvalue2, you can cycle between their values like this:

{% for o in some_list %}
    <tr class="{% cycle rowvalue1 rowvalue2 %}">
{% endfor %}

Note that variable arguments (rowvalue1 and rowvalue2 above) are NOT auto-escaped! So either make sure that you trust their values, or use explicit escaping, like this:

{% for o in some_list %}
    <tr class="{% filter force_escape %}{% cycle rowvalue1 rowvalue2 %}{% endfilter %}">
{% endfor %}

You can mix variables and strings:

{% for o in some_list %}
    <tr class="{% cycle 'row1' rowvalue2 'row3' %}">
{% endfor %}

In some cases you might want to refer to the next value of a cycle from outside of a loop. To do this, just give the {% cycle %} tag a name, using “as”, like this:

{% cycle 'row1' 'row2' as rowcolors %}

From then on, you can insert the current value of the cycle wherever you’d like in your template by referencing the cycle name as a context variable. If you want to move the cycle onto the next value, you use the cycle tag again, using the name of the variable. So, the following template:

    <td class="{% cycle 'row1' 'row2' as rowcolors %}">...</td>
    <td class="{{ rowcolors }}">...</td>
    <td class="{% cycle rowcolors %}">...</td>
    <td class="{{ rowcolors }}">...</td>

would output:

    <td class="row1">...</td>
    <td class="row1">...</td>
    <td class="row2">...</td>
    <td class="row2">...</td>

You can use any number of values in a {% cycle %} tag, separated by spaces. Values enclosed in single (') or double quotes (") are treated as string literals, while values without quotes are treated as template variables.

Note that the variables included in the cycle will not be escaped. This is because template tags do not escape their content. Any HTML or Javascript code contained in the printed variable will be rendered as-is, which could potentially lead to security issues.

For backwards compatibility, the {% cycle %} tag supports the much inferior old syntax from previous Django versions. You shouldn’t use this in any new projects, but for the sake of the people who are still using it, here’s what it looks like:

{% cycle row1,row2,row3 %}

In this syntax, each value gets interpreted as a literal string, and there’s no way to specify variable values. Or literal commas. Or spaces. Did we mention you shouldn’t use this syntax in any new projects?

By default, when you use the as keyword with the cycle tag, the usage of {% cycle %} that declares the cycle will itself output the first value in the cycle. This could be a problem if you want to use the value in a nested loop or an included template. If you want to just declare the cycle, but not output the first value, you can add a silent keyword as the last keyword in the tag. For example:

{% for obj in some_list %}
    {% cycle 'row1' 'row2' as rowcolors silent %}
    <tr class="{{ rowcolors }}">{% include "subtemplate.html " %}</tr>
{% endfor %}

This will output a list of <tr> elements with class alternating between row1 and row2; the subtemplate will have access to rowcolors in it’s context that matches the class of the <tr> that encloses it. If the silent keyword were to be omitted, row1 would be emitted as normal text, outside the <tr> element.

When the silent keyword is used on a cycle definition, the silence automatically applies to all subsequent uses of the cycle tag. In, the following template would output nothing, even though the second call to {% cycle %} doesn’t specify silent:

{% cycle 'row1' 'row2' as rowcolors silent %}
{% cycle rowcolors %}


Outputs a whole load of debugging information, including the current context and imported modules.


Signals that this template extends a parent template.

This tag can be used in two ways:

  • {% extends "base.html" %} (with quotes) uses the literal value "base.html" as the name of the parent template to extend.
  • {% extends variable %} uses the value of variable. If the variable evaluates to a string, Django will use that string as the name of the parent template. If the variable evaluates to a Template object, Django will use that object as the parent template.

See Template inheritance for more information.


Filters the contents of the variable through variable filters.

Filters can also be piped through each other, and they can have arguments – just like in variable syntax.

Sample usage:

{% filter force_escape|lower %}
    This text will be HTML-escaped, and will appear in all lowercase.
{% endfilter %}


The escape and safe filters are not acceptable arguments. Instead, use the autoescape tag to manage autoescaping for blocks of template code.


Outputs the first variable passed that is not False. Does NOT auto-escape variable values.

Outputs nothing if all the passed variables are False.

Sample usage:

{% firstof var1 var2 var3 %}

This is equivalent to:

{% if var1 %}
    {{ var1|safe }}
{% else %}{% if var2 %}
    {{ var2|safe }}
{% else %}{% if var3 %}
    {{ var3|safe }}
{% endif %}{% endif %}{% endif %}

You can also use a literal string as a fallback value in case all passed variables are False:

{% firstof var1 var2 var3 "fallback value" %}

Note that the variables included in the firstof tag will not be escaped. This is because template tags do not escape their content. Any HTML or Javascript code contained in the printed variable will be rendered as-is, which could potentially lead to security issues. If you need to escape the variables in the firstof tag, you must do so explicitly:

{% filter force_escape %}
    {% firstof var1 var2 var3 "fallback value" %}
{% endfilter %}


Loop over each item in an array. For example, to display a list of athletes provided in athlete_list:

{% for athlete in athlete_list %}
    <li>{{ athlete.name }}</li>
{% endfor %}

You can loop over a list in reverse by using {% for obj in list reversed %}.

If you need to loop over a list of lists, you can unpack the values in each sub-list into individual variables. For example, if your context contains a list of (x,y) coordinates called points, you could use the following to output the list of points:

{% for x, y in points %}
    There is a point at {{ x }},{{ y }}
{% endfor %}

This can also be useful if you need to access the items in a dictionary. For example, if your context contained a dictionary data, the following would display the keys and values of the dictionary:

{% for key, value in data.items %}
    {{ key }}: {{ value }}
{% endfor %}

The for loop sets a number of variables available within the loop:

Variable Description
forloop.counter The current iteration of the loop (1-indexed)
forloop.counter0 The current iteration of the loop (0-indexed)
forloop.revcounter The number of iterations from the end of the loop (1-indexed)
forloop.revcounter0 The number of iterations from the end of the loop (0-indexed)
forloop.first True if this is the first time through the loop
forloop.last True if this is the last time through the loop
forloop.parentloop For nested loops, this is the loop “above” the current one

for ... empty

The for tag can take an optional {% empty %} clause that will be displayed if the given array is empty or could not be found:

{% for athlete in athlete_list %}
    <li>{{ athlete.name }}</li>
{% empty %}
    <li>Sorry, no athlete in this list!</li>
{% endfor %}

The above is equivalent to – but shorter, cleaner, and possibly faster than – the following:

  {% if athlete_list %}
    {% for athlete in athlete_list %}
      <li>{{ athlete.name }}</li>
    {% endfor %}
  {% else %}
    <li>Sorry, no athletes in this list.</li>
  {% endif %}


The {% if %} tag evaluates a variable, and if that variable is “true” (i.e. exists, is not empty, and is not a false boolean value) the contents of the block are output:

{% if athlete_list %}
    Number of athletes: {{ athlete_list|length }}
{% elif athlete_in_locker_room_list %}
    Athletes should be out of the locker room soon!
{% else %}
    No athletes.
{% endif %}

In the above, if athlete_list is not empty, the number of athletes will be displayed by the {{ athlete_list|length }} variable.

As you can see, the if tag may take one or several {% elif %} clauses, as well as an {% else %} clause that will be displayed if all previous conditions fail. These clauses are optional.

The if tag now supports {% elif %} clauses.

Boolean operators

if tags may use and, or or not to test a number of variables or to negate a given variable:

{% if athlete_list and coach_list %}
    Both athletes and coaches are available.
{% endif %}

{% if not athlete_list %}
    There are no athletes.
{% endif %}

{% if athlete_list or coach_list %}
    There are some athletes or some coaches.
{% endif %}

{% if not athlete_list or coach_list %}
    There are no athletes or there are some coaches (OK, so
    writing English translations of boolean logic sounds
    stupid; it's not our fault).
{% endif %}

{% if athlete_list and not coach_list %}
    There are some athletes and absolutely no coaches.
{% endif %}

Use of both and and or clauses within the same tag is allowed, with and having higher precedence than or e.g.:

{% if athlete_list and coach_list or cheerleader_list %}

will be interpreted like:

if (athlete_list and coach_list) or cheerleader_list

Use of actual parentheses in the if tag is invalid syntax. If you need them to indicate precedence, you should use nested if tags.

if tags may also use the operators ==, !=, <, >, <=, >= and in which work as follows:

== operator

Equality. Example:

{% if somevar == "x" %}
  This appears if variable somevar equals the string "x"
{% endif %}

!= operator

Inequality. Example:

{% if somevar != "x" %}
  This appears if variable somevar does not equal the string "x",
  or if somevar is not found in the context
{% endif %}

< operator

Less than. Example:

{% if somevar < 100 %}
  This appears if variable somevar is less than 100.
{% endif %}

> operator

Greater than. Example:

{% if somevar > 0 %}
  This appears if variable somevar is greater than 0.
{% endif %}

<= operator

Less than or equal to. Example:

{% if somevar <= 100 %}
  This appears if variable somevar is less than 100 or equal to 100.
{% endif %}

>= operator

Greater than or equal to. Example:

{% if somevar >= 1 %}
  This appears if variable somevar is greater than 1 or equal to 1.
{% endif %}

in operator

Contained within. This operator is supported by many Python containers to test whether the given value is in the container. The following are some examples of how x in y will be interpreted:

{% if "bc" in "abcdef" %}
  This appears since "bc" is a substring of "abcdef"
{% endif %}

{% if "hello" in greetings %}
  If greetings is a list or set, one element of which is the string
  "hello", this will appear.
{% endif %}

{% if user in users %}
  If users is a QuerySet, this will appear if user is an
  instance that belongs to the QuerySet.
{% endif %}

not in operator

Not contained within. This is the negation of the in operator.

The comparison operators cannot be ‘chained’ like in Python or in mathematical notation. For example, instead of using:

{% if a > b > c %}  (WRONG)

you should use:

{% if a > b and b > c %}


You can also use filters in the if expression. For example:

{% if messages|length >= 100 %}
   You have lots of messages today!
{% endif %}

Complex expressions

All of the above can be combined to form complex expressions. For such expressions, it can be important to know how the operators are grouped when the expression is evaluated - that is, the precedence rules. The precedence of the operators, from lowest to highest, is as follows:

  • or
  • and
  • not
  • in
  • ==, !=, <, >, <=, >=

(This follows Python exactly). So, for example, the following complex if tag:

{% if a == b or c == d and e %}

...will be interpreted as:

(a == b) or ((c == d) and e)

If you need different precedence, you will need to use nested if tags. Sometimes that is better for clarity anyway, for the sake of those who do not know the precedence rules.


Check if a value has changed from the last iteration of a loop.

The {% ifchanged %} block tag is used within a loop. It has two possible uses.

  1. Checks its own rendered contents against its previous state and only displays the content if it has changed. For example, this displays a list of days, only displaying the month if it changes:

    <h1>Archive for {{ year }}</h1>
    {% for date in days %}
        {% ifchanged %}<h3>{{ date|date:"F" }}</h3>{% endifchanged %}
        <a href="{{ date|date:"M/d"|lower }}/">{{ date|date:"j" }}</a>
    {% endfor %}
  2. If given one or more variables, check whether any variable has changed. For example, the following shows the date every time it changes, while showing the hour if either the hour or the date has changed:

    {% for date in days %}
        {% ifchanged date.date %} {{ date.date }} {% endifchanged %}
        {% ifchanged date.hour date.date %}
            {{ date.hour }}
        {% endifchanged %}
    {% endfor %}

The ifchanged tag can also take an optional {% else %} clause that will be displayed if the value has not changed:

{% for match in matches %}
    <div style="background-color:
        {% ifchanged match.ballot_id %}
            {% cycle "red" "blue" %}
        {% else %}
        {% endifchanged %}
    ">{{ match }}</div>
{% endfor %}


Output the contents of the block if the two arguments equal each other.


{% ifequal user.pk comment.user_id %}
{% endifequal %}

As in the if tag, an {% else %} clause is optional.

The arguments can be hard-coded strings, so the following is valid:

{% ifequal user.username "adrian" %}
{% endifequal %}

It is only possible to compare an argument to template variables or strings. You cannot check for equality with Python objects such as True or False. If you need to test if something is true or false, use the if tag instead.

An alternative to the ifequal tag is to use the if tag and the == operator.


Just like ifequal, except it tests that the two arguments are not equal.

An alternative to the ifnotequal tag is to use the if tag and the != operator.


Loads a template and renders it with the current context. This is a way of “including” other templates within a template.

The template name can either be a variable or a hard-coded (quoted) string, in either single or double quotes.

This example includes the contents of the template "foo/bar.html":

{% include "foo/bar.html" %}

This example includes the contents of the template whose name is contained in the variable template_name:

{% include template_name %}

An included template is rendered with the context of the template that’s including it. This example produces the output "Hello, John":

  • Context: variable person is set to "john".

  • Template:

    {% include "name_snippet.html" %}
  • The name_snippet.html template:

    {{ greeting }}, {{ person|default:"friend" }}!

You can pass additional context to the template using keyword arguments:

{% include "name_snippet.html" with person="Jane" greeting="Hello" %}

If you want to only render the context with the variables provided (or even no variables at all), use the only option:

{% include "name_snippet.html" with greeting="Hi" only %}


The include tag should be considered as an implementation of “render this subtemplate and include the HTML”, not as “parse this subtemplate and include its contents as if it were part of the parent”. This means that there is no shared state between included templates – each include is a completely independent rendering process.

See also: {% ssi %}.


Loads a custom template tag set.

For example, the following template would load all the tags and filters registered in somelibrary and otherlibrary located in package package:

{% load somelibrary package.otherlibrary %}

You can also selectively load individual filters or tags from a library, using the from argument. In this example, the template tags/filters named foo and bar will be loaded from somelibrary:

{% load foo bar from somelibrary %}

See Custom tag and filter libraries for more information.


Displays the current date and/or time, using a format according to the given string. Such string can contain format specifiers characters as described in the date filter section.


It is {% now "jS F Y H:i" %}

Note that you can backslash-escape a format string if you want to use the “raw” value. In this example, “f” is backslash-escaped, because otherwise “f” is a format string that displays the time. The “o” doesn’t need to be escaped, because it’s not a format character:

It is the {% now "jS o\f F" %}

This would display as “It is the 4th of September”.


The format passed can also be one of the predefined ones DATE_FORMAT, DATETIME_FORMAT, SHORT_DATE_FORMAT or SHORT_DATETIME_FORMAT. The predefined formats may vary depending on the current locale and if Format localization is enabled, e.g.:



Regroups a list of alike objects by a common attribute.

This complex tag is best illustrated by way of an example: say that “places” is a list of cities represented by dictionaries containing "name", "population", and "country" keys:

cities = [
    {'name': 'Mumbai', 'population': '19,000,000', 'country': 'India'},
    {'name': 'Calcutta', 'population': '15,000,000', 'country': 'India'},
    {'name': 'New York', 'population': '20,000,000', 'country': 'USA'},
    {'name': 'Chicago', 'population': '7,000,000', 'country': 'USA'},
    {'name': 'Tokyo', 'population': '33,000,000', 'country': 'Japan'},

...and you’d like to display a hierarchical list that is ordered by country, like this:

  • India
    • Mumbai: 19,000,000
    • Calcutta: 15,000,000
  • USA
    • New York: 20,000,000
    • Chicago: 7,000,000
  • Japan
    • Tokyo: 33,000,000

You can use the {% regroup %} tag to group the list of cities by country. The following snippet of template code would accomplish this:

{% regroup cities by country as country_list %}

{% for country in country_list %}
    <li>{{ country.grouper }}
        {% for item in country.list %}
          <li>{{ item.name }}: {{ item.population }}</li>
        {% endfor %}
{% endfor %}

Let’s walk through this example. {% regroup %} takes three arguments: the list you want to regroup, the attribute to group by, and the name of the resulting list. Here, we’re regrouping the cities list by the country attribute and calling the result country_list.

{% regroup %} produces a list (in this case, country_list) of group objects. Each group object has two attributes:

  • grouper – the item that was grouped by (e.g., the string “India” or “Japan”).
  • list – a list of all items in this group (e.g., a list of all cities with country=’India’).

Note that {% regroup %} does not order its input! Our example relies on the fact that the cities list was ordered by country in the first place. If the cities list did not order its members by country, the regrouping would naively display more than one group for a single country. For example, say the cities list was set to this (note that the countries are not grouped together):

cities = [
    {'name': 'Mumbai', 'population': '19,000,000', 'country': 'India'},
    {'name': 'New York', 'population': '20,000,000', 'country': 'USA'},
    {'name': 'Calcutta', 'population': '15,000,000', 'country': 'India'},
    {'name': 'Chicago', 'population': '7,000,000', 'country': 'USA'},
    {'name': 'Tokyo', 'population': '33,000,000', 'country': 'Japan'},

With this input for cities, the example {% regroup %} template code above would result in the following output:

  • India
    • Mumbai: 19,000,000
  • USA
    • New York: 20,000,000
  • India
    • Calcutta: 15,000,000
  • Japan
    • Tokyo: 33,000,000

The easiest solution to this gotcha is to make sure in your view code that the data is ordered according to how you want to display it.

Another solution is to sort the data in the template using the dictsort filter, if your data is in a list of dictionaries:

{% regroup cities|dictsort:"country" by country as country_list %}

Grouping on other properties

Any valid template lookup is a legal grouping attribute for the regroup tag, including methods, attributes, dictionary keys and list items. For example, if the “country” field is a foreign key to a class with an attribute “description,” you could use:

{% regroup cities by country.description as country_list %}

Or, if country is a field with choices, it will have a get_FOO_display() method available as an attribute, allowing you to group on the display string rather than the choices key:

{% regroup cities by get_country_display as country_list %}

{{ country.grouper }} will now display the value fields from the choices set rather than the keys.


Removes whitespace between HTML tags. This includes tab characters and newlines.

Example usage:

{% spaceless %}
        <a href="foo/">Foo</a>
{% endspaceless %}

This example would return this HTML:

<p><a href="foo/">Foo</a></p>

Only space between tags is removed – not space between tags and text. In this example, the space around Hello won’t be stripped:

{% spaceless %}
{% endspaceless %}


Outputs the contents of a given file into the page.

Like a simple include tag, {% ssi %} includes the contents of another file – which must be specified using an absolute path – in the current page:

{% ssi '/home/html/ljworld.com/includes/right_generic.html' %}

The first parameter of ssi can be a quoted literal or any other context variable.

If the optional “parsed” parameter is given, the contents of the included file are evaluated as template code, within the current context:

{% ssi '/home/html/ljworld.com/includes/right_generic.html' parsed %}

Note that if you use {% ssi %}, you’ll need to define ALLOWED_INCLUDE_ROOTS in your Django settings, as a security measure.

See also: {% include %}.


Outputs one of the syntax characters used to compose template tags.

Since the template system has no concept of “escaping”, to display one of the bits used in template tags, you must use the {% templatetag %} tag.

The argument tells which template bit to output:

Argument Outputs
openblock {%
closeblock %}
openvariable {{
closevariable }}
openbrace {
closebrace }
opencomment {#
closecomment #}


Returns an absolute path reference (a URL without the domain name) matching a given view function and optional parameters. This is a way to output links without violating the DRY principle by having to hard-code URLs in your templates:

{% url 'path.to.some_view' v1 v2 %}

The first argument is a path to a view function in the format package.package.module.function. It can be a quoted literal or any other context variable. Additional arguments are optional and should be space-separated values that will be used as arguments in the URL. The example above shows passing positional arguments. Alternatively you may use keyword syntax:

{% url 'path.to.some_view' arg1=v1 arg2=v2 %}

Do not mix both positional and keyword syntax in a single call. All arguments required by the URLconf should be present.

For example, suppose you have a view, app_views.client, whose URLconf takes a client ID (here, client() is a method inside the views file app_views.py). The URLconf line might look like this:

('^client/(\d+)/$', 'app_views.client')

If this app’s URLconf is included into the project’s URLconf under a path such as this:

('^clients/', include('project_name.app_name.urls'))

...then, in a template, you can create a link to this view like this:

{% url 'app_views.client' client.id %}

The template tag will output the string /clients/client/123/.

If you’re using named URL patterns, you can refer to the name of the pattern in the url tag instead of using the path to the view.

Note that if the URL you’re reversing doesn’t exist, you’ll get an NoReverseMatch exception raised, which will cause your site to display an error page.

If you’d like to retrieve a URL without displaying it, you can use a slightly different call:

{% url 'path.to.view' arg arg2 as the_url %}

<a href="{{ the_url }}">I'm linking to {{ the_url }}</a>

This {% url ... as var %} syntax will not cause an error if the view is missing. In practice you’ll use this to link to views that are optional:

{% url 'path.to.view' as the_url %}
{% if the_url %}
  <a href="{{ the_url }}">Link to optional stuff</a>
{% endif %}

If you’d like to retrieve a namespaced URL, specify the fully qualified name:

{% url 'myapp:view-name' %}

This will follow the normal namespaced URL resolution strategy, including using any hints provided by the context as to the current application.


Don’t forget to put quotes around the function path or pattern name!

The first parameter used not to be quoted, which was inconsistent with other template tags. Since Django 1.5, it is evaluated according to the usual rules: it can be a quoted string or a variable that will be looked up in the context.


Stops the template engine from rendering the contents of this block tag.

A common use is to allow a Javascript template layer that collides with Django’s syntax. For example:

{% verbatim %}
    {{if dying}}Still alive.{{/if}}
{% endverbatim %}

You can also designate a specific closing tag, allowing the use of {% endverbatim %} as part of the unrendered contents:

{% verbatim myblock %}
    Avoid template rendering via the {% verbatim %}{% endverbatim %} block.
{% endverbatim myblock %}


For creating bar charts and such, this tag calculates the ratio of a given value to a maximum value, and then applies that ratio to a constant.

For example:

<img src="bar.png" alt="Bar"
     height="10" width="{% widthratio this_value max_value max_width %}" />

If this_value is 175, max_value is 200, and max_width is 100, the image in the above example will be 88 pixels wide (because 175/200 = .875; .875 * 100 = 87.5 which is rounded up to 88).


Caches a complex variable under a simpler name. This is useful when accessing an “expensive” method (e.g., one that hits the database) multiple times.

For example:

{% with total=business.employees.count %}
    {{ total }} employee{{ total|pluralize }}
{% endwith %}

The populated variable (in the example above, total) is only available between the {% with %} and {% endwith %} tags.

You can assign more than one context variable:

{% with alpha=1 beta=2 %}
{% endwith %}


The previous more verbose format is still supported: {% with business.employees.count as total %}

Built-in filter reference


Adds the argument to the value.

For example:

{{ value|add:"2" }}

If value is 4, then the output will be 6.

This filter will first try to coerce both values to integers. If this fails, it’ll attempt to add the values together anyway. This will work on some data types (strings, list, etc.) and fail on others. If it fails, the result will be an empty string.

For example, if we have:

{{ first|add:second }}

and first is [1, 2, 3] and second is [4, 5, 6], then the output will be [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6].


Strings that can be coerced to integers will be summed, not concatenated, as in the first example above.


Adds slashes before quotes. Useful for escaping strings in CSV, for example.

For example:

{{ value|addslashes }}

If value is "I'm using Django", the output will be "I\'m using Django".


Capitalizes the first character of the value.

For example:

{{ value|capfirst }}

If value is "django", the output will be "Django".


Centers the value in a field of a given width.

For example:

"{{ value|center:"15" }}"

If value is "Django", the output will be "     Django    ".


Removes all values of arg from the given string.

For example:

{{ value|cut:" " }}

If value is "String with spaces", the output will be "Stringwithspaces".


Formats a date according to the given format.

Uses a similar format as PHP’s date() function (http://php.net/date) with some differences.

Available format strings:

Format character Description Example output
a 'a.m.' or 'p.m.' (Note that this is slightly different than PHP’s output, because this includes periods to match Associated Press style.) 'a.m.'
A 'AM' or 'PM'. 'AM'
b Month, textual, 3 letters, lowercase. 'jan'
B Not implemented.  
c ISO 8601 format. (Note: unlike others formatters, such as “Z”, “O” or “r”, the “c” formatter will not add timezone offset if value is a naive datetime (see datetime.tzinfo). 2008-01-02T10:30:00.000123+02:00, or 2008-01-02T10:30:00.000123 if the datetime is naive
d Day of the month, 2 digits with leading zeros. '01' to '31'
D Day of the week, textual, 3 letters. 'Fri'
e Timezone name. Could be in any format, or might return an empty string, depending on the datetime. '', 'GMT', '-500', 'US/Eastern', etc.
E Month, locale specific alternative representation usually used for long date representation. 'listopada' (for Polish locale, as opposed to 'Listopad')
f Time, in 12-hour hours and minutes, with minutes left off if they’re zero. Proprietary extension. '1', '1:30'
F Month, textual, long. 'January'
g Hour, 12-hour format without leading zeros. '1' to '12'
G Hour, 24-hour format without leading zeros. '0' to '23'
h Hour, 12-hour format. '01' to '12'
H Hour, 24-hour format. '00' to '23'
i Minutes. '00' to '59'
I Daylight Savings Time, whether it’s in effect or not. '1' or '0'
j Day of the month without leading zeros. '1' to '31'
l Day of the week, textual, long. 'Friday'
L Boolean for whether it’s a leap year. True or False
m Month, 2 digits with leading zeros. '01' to '12'
M Month, textual, 3 letters. 'Jan'
n Month without leading zeros. '1' to '12'
N Month abbreviation in Associated Press style. Proprietary extension. 'Jan.', 'Feb.', 'March', 'May'
o ISO-8601 week-numbering year, corresponding to the ISO-8601 week number (W) '1999'
O Difference to Greenwich time in hours. '+0200'
P Time, in 12-hour hours, minutes and ‘a.m.’/’p.m.’, with minutes left off if they’re zero and the special-case strings ‘midnight’ and ‘noon’ if appropriate. Proprietary extension. '1 a.m.', '1:30 p.m.', 'midnight', 'noon', '12:30 p.m.'
r RFC 2822 formatted date. 'Thu, 21 Dec 2000 16:01:07 +0200'
s Seconds, 2 digits with leading zeros. '00' to '59'
S English ordinal suffix for day of the month, 2 characters. 'st', 'nd', 'rd' or 'th'
t Number of days in the given month. 28 to 31
T Time zone of this machine. 'EST', 'MDT'
u Microseconds. 000000 to 999999
U Seconds since the Unix Epoch (January 1 1970 00:00:00 UTC).  
w Day of the week, digits without leading zeros. '0' (Sunday) to '6' (Saturday)
W ISO-8601 week number of year, with weeks starting on Monday. 1, 53
y Year, 2 digits. '99'
Y Year, 4 digits. '1999'
z Day of the year. 0 to 365
Z Time zone offset in seconds. The offset for timezones west of UTC is always negative, and for those east of UTC is always positive. -43200 to 43200

The e and o format specification characters were added in Django 1.4.

For example:

{{ value|date:"D d M Y" }}

If value is a datetime object (e.g., the result of datetime.datetime.now()), the output will be the string 'Wed 09 Jan 2008'.

The format passed can be one of the predefined ones DATE_FORMAT, DATETIME_FORMAT, SHORT_DATE_FORMAT or SHORT_DATETIME_FORMAT, or a custom format that uses the format specifiers shown in the table above. Note that predefined formats may vary depending on the current locale.

Assuming that USE_L10N is True and LANGUAGE_CODE is, for example, "es", then for:

{{ value|date:"SHORT_DATE_FORMAT" }}

the output would be the string "09/01/2008" (the "SHORT_DATE_FORMAT" format specifier for the es locale as shipped with Django is "d/m/Y").

When used without a format string:

{{ value|date }}

...the formatting string defined in the DATE_FORMAT setting will be used, without applying any localization.


If value evaluates to False, uses the given default. Otherwise, uses the value.

For example:

{{ value|default:"nothing" }}

If value is "" (the empty string), the output will be nothing.


If (and only if) value is None, uses the given default. Otherwise, uses the value.

Note that if an empty string is given, the default value will not be used. Use the default filter if you want to fallback for empty strings.

For example:

{{ value|default_if_none:"nothing" }}

If value is None, the output will be the string "nothing".


Takes a list of dictionaries and returns that list sorted by the key given in the argument.

For example:

{{ value|dictsort:"name" }}

If value is:

    {'name': 'zed', 'age': 19},
    {'name': 'amy', 'age': 22},
    {'name': 'joe', 'age': 31},

then the output would be:

    {'name': 'amy', 'age': 22},
    {'name': 'joe', 'age': 31},
    {'name': 'zed', 'age': 19},


Takes a list of dictionaries and returns that list sorted in reverse order by the key given in the argument. This works exactly the same as the above filter, but the returned value will be in reverse order.


Returns True if the value is divisible by the argument.

For example:

{{ value|divisibleby:"3" }}

If value is 21, the output would be True.


Escapes a string’s HTML. Specifically, it makes these replacements:

  • < is converted to &lt;
  • > is converted to &gt;
  • ' (single quote) is converted to &#39;
  • " (double quote) is converted to &quot;
  • & is converted to &amp;

The escaping is only applied when the string is output, so it does not matter where in a chained sequence of filters you put escape: it will always be applied as though it were the last filter. If you want escaping to be applied immediately, use the force_escape filter.

Applying escape to a variable that would normally have auto-escaping applied to the result will only result in one round of escaping being done. So it is safe to use this function even in auto-escaping environments. If you want multiple escaping passes to be applied, use the force_escape filter.


Escapes characters for use in JavaScript strings. This does not make the string safe for use in HTML, but does protect you from syntax errors when using templates to generate JavaScript/JSON.

For example:

{{ value|escapejs }}

If value is "testing\r\njavascript \'string" <b>escaping</b>", the output will be "testing\\u000D\\u000Ajavascript \\u0027string\\u0022 \\u003Cb\\u003Eescaping\\u003C/b\\u003E".


Formats the value like a ‘human-readable’ file size (i.e. '13 KB', '4.1 MB', '102 bytes', etc).

For example:

{{ value|filesizeformat }}

If value is 123456789, the output would be 117.7 MB.

File sizes and SI units

Strictly speaking, filesizeformat does not conform to the International System of Units which recommends using KiB, MiB, GiB, etc. when byte sizes are calculated in powers of 1024 (which is the case here). Instead, Django uses traditional unit names (KB, MB, GB, etc.) corresponding to names that are more commonly used.


Returns the first item in a list.

For example:

{{ value|first }}

If value is the list ['a', 'b', 'c'], the output will be 'a'.



This is rarely useful as ampersands are automatically escaped. See escape for more information.

Replaces ampersands with &amp; entities.

For example:

{{ value|fix_ampersands }}

If value is Tom & Jerry, the output will be Tom &amp; Jerry.

However, ampersands used in named entities and numeric character references will not be replaced. For example, if value is Caf&eacute;, the output will not be Caf&amp;eacute; but remain Caf&eacute;. This means that in some edge cases, such as acronyms followed by semicolons, this filter will not replace ampersands that need replacing. For example, if value is Contact the R&D;, the output will remain unchanged because &D; resembles a named entity.


When used without an argument, rounds a floating-point number to one decimal place – but only if there’s a decimal part to be displayed. For example:

value Template Output
34.23234 {{ value|floatformat }} 34.2
34.00000 {{ value|floatformat }} 34
34.26000 {{ value|floatformat }} 34.3

If used with a numeric integer argument, floatformat rounds a number to that many decimal places. For example:

value Template Output
34.23234 {{ value|floatformat:3 }} 34.232
34.00000 {{ value|floatformat:3 }} 34.000
34.26000 {{ value|floatformat:3 }} 34.260

Particularly useful is passing 0 (zero) as the argument which will round the float to the nearest integer.

value Template Output
34.23234 {{ value|floatformat:"0" }} 34
34.00000 {{ value|floatformat:"0" }} 34
39.56000 {{ value|floatformat:"0" }} 40

If the argument passed to floatformat is negative, it will round a number to that many decimal places – but only if there’s a decimal part to be displayed. For example:

value Template Output
34.23234 {{ value|floatformat:"-3" }} 34.232
34.00000 {{ value|floatformat:"-3" }} 34
34.26000 {{ value|floatformat:"-3" }} 34.260

Using floatformat with no argument is equivalent to using floatformat with an argument of -1.


Applies HTML escaping to a string (see the escape filter for details). This filter is applied immediately and returns a new, escaped string. This is useful in the rare cases where you need multiple escaping or want to apply other filters to the escaped results. Normally, you want to use the escape filter.


Given a whole number, returns the requested digit, where 1 is the right-most digit, 2 is the second-right-most digit, etc. Returns the original value for invalid input (if input or argument is not an integer, or if argument is less than 1). Otherwise, output is always an integer.

For example:

{{ value|get_digit:"2" }}

If value is 123456789, the output will be 8.


Converts an IRI (Internationalized Resource Identifier) to a string that is suitable for including in a URL. This is necessary if you’re trying to use strings containing non-ASCII characters in a URL.

It’s safe to use this filter on a string that has already gone through the urlencode filter.

For example:

{{ value|iriencode }}

If value is "?test=1&me=2", the output will be "?test=1&amp;me=2".


Joins a list with a string, like Python’s str.join(list)

For example:

{{ value|join:" // " }}

If value is the list ['a', 'b', 'c'], the output will be the string "a // b // c".


Returns the last item in a list.

For example:

{{ value|last }}

If value is the list ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd'], the output will be the string "d".


Returns the length of the value. This works for both strings and lists.

For example:

{{ value|length }}

If value is ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd'], the output will be 4.


Returns True if the value’s length is the argument, or False otherwise.

For example:

{{ value|length_is:"4" }}

If value is ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd'], the output will be True.


Replaces line breaks in plain text with appropriate HTML; a single newline becomes an HTML line break (<br />) and a new line followed by a blank line becomes a paragraph break (</p>).

For example:

{{ value|linebreaks }}

If value is Joel\nis a slug, the output will be <p>Joel<br />is a slug</p>.


Converts all newlines in a piece of plain text to HTML line breaks (<br />).

For example:

{{ value|linebreaksbr }}

If value is Joel\nis a slug, the output will be Joel<br />is a slug.


Displays text with line numbers.

For example:

{{ value|linenumbers }}

If value is:


the output will be:

1. one
2. two
3. three


Left-aligns the value in a field of a given width.

Argument: field size

For example:

"{{ value|ljust:"10" }}"

If value is Django, the output will be "Django    ".


Converts a string into all lowercase.

For example:

{{ value|lower }}

If value is Still MAD At Yoko, the output will be still mad at yoko.


Returns the value turned into a list. For a string, it’s a list of characters. For an integer, the argument is cast into an unicode string before creating a list.

For example:

{{ value|make_list }}

If value is the string "Joel", the output would be the list [u'J', u'o', u'e', u'l']. If value is 123, the output will be the list [u'1', u'2', u'3'].


Converts a phone number (possibly containing letters) to its numerical equivalent.

The input doesn’t have to be a valid phone number. This will happily convert any string.

For example:

{{ value|phone2numeric }}

If value is 800-COLLECT, the output will be 800-2655328.


Returns a plural suffix if the value is not 1. By default, this suffix is 's'.


You have {{ num_messages }} message{{ num_messages|pluralize }}.

If num_messages is 1, the output will be You have 1 message. If num_messages is 2 the output will be You have 2 messages.

For words that require a suffix other than 's', you can provide an alternate suffix as a parameter to the filter.


You have {{ num_walruses }} walrus{{ num_walruses|pluralize:"es" }}.

For words that don’t pluralize by simple suffix, you can specify both a singular and plural suffix, separated by a comma.


You have {{ num_cherries }} cherr{{ num_cherries|pluralize:"y,ies" }}.


Use blocktrans to pluralize translated strings.


A wrapper around pprint.pprint() – for debugging, really.


Returns a random item from the given list.

For example:

{{ value|random }}

If value is the list ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd'], the output could be "b".


Removes a space-separated list of [X]HTML tags from the output.

For example:

{{ value|removetags:"b span"|safe }}

If value is "<b>Joel</b> <button>is</button> a <span>slug</span>" the output will be "Joel <button>is</button> a slug".

Note that this filter is case-sensitive.

If value is "<B>Joel</B> <button>is</button> a <span>slug</span>" the output will be "<B>Joel</B> <button>is</button> a slug".


Right-aligns the value in a field of a given width.

Argument: field size

For example:

"{{ value|rjust:"10" }}"

If value is Django, the output will be "    Django".


Marks a string as not requiring further HTML escaping prior to output. When autoescaping is off, this filter has no effect.


If you are chaining filters, a filter applied after safe can make the contents unsafe again. For example, the following code prints the variable as is, unescaped:

{{ var|safe|escape }}


Applies the safe filter to each element of a sequence. Useful in conjunction with other filters that operate on sequences, such as join. For example:

{{ some_list|safeseq|join:", " }}

You couldn’t use the safe filter directly in this case, as it would first convert the variable into a string, rather than working with the individual elements of the sequence.


Returns a slice of the list.

Uses the same syntax as Python’s list slicing. See http://diveintopython.net/native_data_types/lists.html#odbchelper.list.slice for an introduction.


{{ some_list|slice:":2" }}

If some_list is ['a', 'b', 'c'], the output will be ['a', 'b'].


Converts to lowercase, removes non-word characters (alphanumerics and underscores) and converts spaces to hyphens. Also strips leading and trailing whitespace.

For example:

{{ value|slugify }}

If value is "Joel is a slug", the output will be "joel-is-a-slug".


Formats the variable according to the argument, a string formatting specifier. This specifier uses Python string formatting syntax, with the exception that the leading “%” is dropped.

See http://docs.python.org/library/stdtypes.html#string-formatting-operations for documentation of Python string formatting

For example:

{{ value|stringformat:"E" }}

If value is 10, the output will be 1.000000E+01.


Strips all [X]HTML tags.

For example:

{{ value|striptags }}

If value is "<b>Joel</b> <button>is</button> a <span>slug</span>", the output will be "Joel is a slug".


Formats a time according to the given format.

Given format can be the predefined one TIME_FORMAT, or a custom format, same as the date filter. Note that the predefined format is locale-dependant.

The time filter will only accept parameters in the format string that relate to the time of day, not the date (for obvious reasons). If you need to format a date, use the date filter.

For example:

{{ value|time:"H:i" }}

If value is equivalent to datetime.datetime.now(), the output will be the string "01:23".

Another example:

Assuming that USE_L10N is True and LANGUAGE_CODE is, for example, "de", then for:

{{ value|time:"TIME_FORMAT" }}

the output will be the string "01:23:00" (The "TIME_FORMAT" format specifier for the de locale as shipped with Django is "H:i:s").

When used without a format string:

{{ value|time }}

...the formatting string defined in the TIME_FORMAT setting will be used, without applying any localization.


Formats a date as the time since that date (e.g., “4 days, 6 hours”).

Takes an optional argument that is a variable containing the date to use as the comparison point (without the argument, the comparison point is now). For example, if blog_date is a date instance representing midnight on 1 June 2006, and comment_date is a date instance for 08:00 on 1 June 2006, then {{ blog_date|timesince:comment_date }} would return “8 hours”.

Comparing offset-naive and offset-aware datetimes will return an empty string.

Minutes is the smallest unit used, and “0 minutes” will be returned for any date that is in the future relative to the comparison point.


Similar to timesince, except that it measures the time from now until the given date or datetime. For example, if today is 1 June 2006 and conference_date is a date instance holding 29 June 2006, then {{ conference_date|timeuntil }} will return “4 weeks”.

Takes an optional argument that is a variable containing the date to use as the comparison point (instead of now). If from_date contains 22 June 2006, then {{ conference_date|timeuntil:from_date }} will return “1 week”.

Comparing offset-naive and offset-aware datetimes will return an empty string.

Minutes is the smallest unit used, and “0 minutes” will be returned for any date that is in the past relative to the comparison point.


Converts a string into titlecase.

For example:

{{ value|title }}

If value is "my first post", the output will be "My First Post".


Truncates a string if it is longer than the specified number of characters. Truncated strings will end with a translatable ellipsis sequence (”...”).

Argument: Number of characters to truncate to

For example:

{{ value|truncatechars:9 }}

If value is "Joel is a slug", the output will be "Joel i...".


Truncates a string after a certain number of words.

Argument: Number of words to truncate after

For example:

{{ value|truncatewords:2 }}

If value is "Joel is a slug", the output will be "Joel is ...".

Newlines within the string will be removed.


Similar to truncatewords, except that it is aware of HTML tags. Any tags that are opened in the string and not closed before the truncation point, are closed immediately after the truncation.

This is less efficient than truncatewords, so should only be used when it is being passed HTML text.

For example:

{{ value|truncatewords_html:2 }}

If value is "<p>Joel is a slug</p>", the output will be "<p>Joel is ...</p>".

Newlines in the HTML content will be preserved.


Recursively takes a self-nested list and returns an HTML unordered list – WITHOUT opening and closing <ul> tags.

The list is assumed to be in the proper format. For example, if var contains ['States', ['Kansas', ['Lawrence', 'Topeka'], 'Illinois']], then {{ var|unordered_list }} would return:


Note: An older, more restrictive and verbose input format is also supported: ['States', [['Kansas', [['Lawrence', []], ['Topeka', []]]], ['Illinois', []]]],


Converts a string into all uppercase.

For example:

{{ value|upper }}

If value is "Joel is a slug", the output will be "JOEL IS A SLUG".


Escapes a value for use in a URL.

For example:

{{ value|urlencode }}

If value is "http://www.example.org/foo?a=b&c=d", the output will be "http%3A//www.example.org/foo%3Fa%3Db%26c%3Dd".

An optional argument containing the characters which should not be escaped can be provided.

If not provided, the ‘/’ character is assumed safe. An empty string can be provided when all characters should be escaped. For example:

{{ value|urlencode:"" }}

If value is "http://www.example.org/", the output will be "http%3A%2F%2Fwww.example.org%2F".


Converts URLs in text into clickable links.

This template tag works on links prefixed with http://, https://, or www.. For example, http://goo.gl/aia1t will get converted but goo.gl/aia1t won’t.

It also supports domain-only links ending in one of the original top level domains (.com, .edu, .gov, .int, .mil, .net, and .org). For example, djangoproject.com gets converted.

Until Django 1.4, only the .com, .net and .org suffixes were supported for domain-only links.

Links can have trailing punctuation (periods, commas, close-parens) and leading punctuation (opening parens), and urlize will still do the right thing.

Links generated by urlize have a rel="nofollow" attribute added to them.

For example:

{{ value|urlize }}

If value is "Check out www.djangoproject.com", the output will be "Check out <a href="http://www.djangoproject.com" rel="nofollow">www.djangoproject.com</a>".

The urlize filter also takes an optional parameter autoescape. If autoescape is True, the link text and URLs will be escaped using Django’s built-in escape filter. The default value for autoescape is True.


If urlize is applied to text that already contains HTML markup, things won’t work as expected. Apply this filter only to plain text.


Converts URLs into clickable links just like urlize, but truncates URLs longer than the given character limit.

Argument: Number of characters that link text should be truncated to, including the ellipsis that’s added if truncation is necessary.

For example:

{{ value|urlizetrunc:15 }}

If value is "Check out www.djangoproject.com", the output would be 'Check out <a href="http://www.djangoproject.com" rel="nofollow">www.djangopr...</a>'.

As with urlize, this filter should only be applied to plain text.


Returns the number of words.

For example:

{{ value|wordcount }}

If value is "Joel is a slug", the output will be 4.


Wraps words at specified line length.

Argument: number of characters at which to wrap the text

For example:

{{ value|wordwrap:5 }}

If value is Joel is a slug, the output would be:

is a


Maps values for true, false and (optionally) None, to the strings “yes”, “no”, “maybe”, or a custom mapping passed as a comma-separated list, and returns one of those strings according to the value:

For example:

{{ value|yesno:"yeah,no,maybe" }}
Value Argument Outputs
True   yes
True "yeah,no,maybe" yeah
False "yeah,no,maybe" no
None "yeah,no,maybe" maybe
None "yeah,no" "no" (converts None to False if no mapping for None is given)

Internationalization tags and filters

Django provides template tags and filters to control each aspect of internationalization in templates. They allow for granular control of translations, formatting, and time zone conversions.


This library allows specifying translatable text in templates. To enable it, set USE_I18N to True, then load it with {% load i18n %}.

See Internationalization: in template code.


This library provides control over the localization of values in templates. You only need to load the library using {% load l10n %}, but you’ll often set USE_L10N to True so that localization is active by default.

See Controlling localization in templates.


This library provides control over time zone conversions in templates. Like l10n, you only need to load the library using {% load tz %}, but you’ll usually also set USE_TZ to True so that conversion to local time happens by default.

See Time zone aware output in templates.

Other tags and filters libraries

Django comes with a couple of other template-tag libraries that you have to enable explicitly in your INSTALLED_APPS setting and enable in your template with the {% load %} tag.


A set of Django template filters useful for adding a “human touch” to data. See django.contrib.humanize.


A collection of template filters that implement these common markup languages:

  • Textile
  • Markdown
  • reST (reStructuredText)

See the markup documentation.


A collection of template tags that can be useful while designing a Web site, such as a generator of Lorem Ipsum text. See django.contrib.webdesign.



To link to static files that are saved in STATIC_ROOT Django ships with a static template tag. You can use this regardless if you’re using RequestContext or not.

{% load static %}
<img src="{% static "images/hi.jpg" %}" alt="Hi!" />

It is also able to consume standard context variables, e.g. assuming a user_stylesheet variable is passed to the template:

{% load static %}
<link rel="stylesheet" href="{% static user_stylesheet %}" type="text/css" media="screen" />

If you’d like to retrieve a static URL without displaying it, you can use a slightly different call:

.. versionadded:: 1.5
{% load static %}
{% static "images/hi.jpg" as myphoto %}
<img src="{{ myphoto }}"></img>


The staticfiles contrib app also ships with a static template tag which uses staticfiles' STATICFILES_STORAGE to build the URL of the given path. Use that instead if you have an advanced use case such as using a cloud service to serve static files:

{% load static from staticfiles %}
<img src="{% static "images/hi.jpg" %}" alt="Hi!" />


If you’re not using RequestContext, or if you need more control over exactly where and how STATIC_URL is injected into the template, you can use the get_static_prefix template tag instead:

{% load static %}
<img src="{% get_static_prefix %}images/hi.jpg" alt="Hi!" />

There’s also a second form you can use to avoid extra processing if you need the value multiple times:

{% load static %}
{% get_static_prefix as STATIC_PREFIX %}

<img src="{{ STATIC_PREFIX }}images/hi.jpg" alt="Hi!" />
<img src="{{ STATIC_PREFIX }}images/hi2.jpg" alt="Hello!" />


Similar to the get_static_prefix, get_media_prefix populates a template variable with the media prefix MEDIA_URL, e.g.:

<script type="text/javascript" charset="utf-8">
var media_path = '{% get_media_prefix %}';